Official definitions[ edit ] Old age comprises "the later part of life; the period of life after youth and middle age. At the same time, the WHO recognized that the developing world often defines old age, not by years, but by new roles, loss of previous roles, or inability to make active contributions to society. Being 60—65 years old is usually a requirement for becoming eligible for senior social programs. In developed countries, most people in their 60s and early 70s are still fit, active, and able to care for themselves.
Part 1 We must now treat of youth and old age and life and death.
We must probably also at the same time state the causes of respiration as well, since in some cases living and the reverse depend on this. We have elsewhere given a precise account of the soul, and while it is clear that its essential reality cannot be corporeal, yet manifestly it must exist in some bodily part which must be one of those possessing control over the members.
Let us for the present set aside the other divisions or faculties of the soul whichever of the two be the correct name. But as to being what is called an animal and a living thing, we find that in all beings endowed with both characteristics viz.
But a thing need not, though alive, be animal, for plants live without having sensation, and it is by sensation that we distinguish animal from what is not animal. This organ, then, must be numerically one and the same and yet possess multiple and disparate aspects, for being animal and living are not identical.
That part where food enters we call upper, considering it by itself and not relatively to the surrounding universe, while downward is that part by which the primary excrement is discharged. Plants are the reverse of animals in this respect. To man in particular among the animals, on account of his erect stature, belongs the characteristic of having his upper parts pointing upwards in the sense in which that applies to the universe, while in the others these are in an intermediate position.
Part 2 All perfectly formed animals are to be divided into three parts, one that by which food is taken in, one that by which excrement is discharged, and the third the region intermediate between them. In the largest animals this latter is called the chest and in the others something corresponding; in some also it is more distinctly marked off than in others.
All those also that are capable of progression have additional members subservient to this purpose, by means of which they bear the whole trunk, to wit legs and feet and whatever parts are possessed of the same powers.
Now it is evident both by observation and by inference that the source of the nutritive soul is in the midst of the three parts. For many animals, when either part-the head or the receptacle of the food-is cut off, retain life in that member to which the middle remains attached.
This can be seen to occur in many insects, e. While this member is indeed in actuality single, yet potentially it is multiple, for these animals have a constitution similar to that of Plants; plants when cut into sections continue to live, and a number of trees can be derived from one single source.
A separate account will be given of the reason why some plants cannot live when divided, while others can be propagated by the taking of slips. In this respect, however, plants and insects are alike. It is true that the nutritive soul, in beings possessing it, while actually single must be potentially plural.
And it is too with the principle of sensation, for evidently the divided segments of these animals have sensation. They are unable, however, to preserve their constitution, as plants can, not possessing the organs on which the continuance of life depends, for some lack the means for seizing, others for receiving their food; or again they may be destitute of other organs as well.
Divisible animals are like a number of animals grown together, but animals of superior construction behave differently because their constitution is a unity of the highest possible kind.
Hence some of the organs on division display slight sensitiveness because they retain some psychical susceptibility; the animals continue to move after the vitals have been abstracted: Part 3 The same phenomenon is evident both in plants and in animals, and in plants we note it both in their propagation by seed and in grafts and cuttings.
Genesis from seeds always starts from the middle. All seeds are bivalvular, and the place of junction is situated at the point of attachment to the plantan intermediate part belonging to both halves. It is from this part that both root and stem of growing things emerge; the starting-point is in a central position between them.
In the case of grafts and cuttings this is particularly true of the buds; for the bud is in a way the starting-point of the branch, but at the same time it is in a central position.
Hence it is either this that is cut off, or into this that the new shoot is inserted, when we wish either a new branch or a new root to spring from it; which proves that the point of origin in growth is intermediate between stem and root. Likewise in sanguineous animals the heart is the first organ developed; this is evident from what has been observed in those cases where observation of their growth is possible.
Hence in bloodless animals also what corresponds to the heart must develop first. We have already asserted in our treatise on The Parts of Animals that it is from the heart that the veins issue, and that in sanguineous animals the blood is the final nutriment from which the members are formed.
Hence it is clear that there is one function in nutrition which the mouth has the faculty of performing, and a different one appertaining to the stomach.
But it is the heart that has supreme control, exercising an additional and completing function. Hence in sanguineous animals the source both of the sensitive and of the nutritive soul must be in the heart, for the functions relative to nutrition exercised by the other parts are ancillary to the activity of the heart.
Certainly, however, all saguineous animals have the supreme organ of the sensefaculties in the heart, for it is here that we must look for the common sensorium belonging to all the sense-organs. These in two cases, taste and touch, can be clearly seen to extend to the heart, and hence the others also must lead to it, for in it the other organs may possibly initiate changes, whereas with the upper region of the body taste and touch have no connexion.
Apart from these considerations, if the life is always located in this part, evidently the principle of sensation must be situated there too, for it is qua animal that an animal is said to be a living thing, and it is called animal because endowed with sensation.
Elsewhere in other works we have stated the reasons why some of the sense-organs are, as is evident, connected with the heart, while others are situated in the head.Jun 20, · Provided to YouTube by Ditto Music Youth & Old Age · Shy Billy Youth & Old Age ℗ FORMULA RECORDS LIMITED Released on: Auto-generated by YouTube.
"Forty is the old age of youth; fifty the youth of old age." - Victor Hugo quotes from timberdesignmag.com Read more: Essay on Old Age Problems 1. As the years fly away, the energy and physical exertion becomes a lower factor. This is the case for most old age people. The skin begins to wrinkle, age spots appear in what was once attractive.
Based on his survey of old age in history, Georges Minois concludes that "it is clear that always and everywhere youth has been preferred to old age." In Western thought, "old age is an evil, an infirmity and a dreary time of preparation for death.". A beginning always has to have a finish and surely does life.
We all know that age considers; youth ventures. There’s always a constant battle between the . The title On Youth, Old Age, Life and Death, and Respiration, given in the Medieval manuscripts, derives from the treatise's opening words: "We must now treat of youth and old age and life and death.
We must probably also at the same time state the causes of respiration as well, since in some cases living and the reverse depend on this.".