Pin It Child labor is a major problem that is being faced by several developing as well as poor countries. Children are being treated as money making machines in many countries. Surveys show that in the developing countries like India,
Whereas inemployed mothers were more likely to be from single-parent families, this difference has now vanished. For single mothers who have been married, the present employment rates are slightly higher than those of currently married mothers, but for never-married mothers, employment rates are notably lower than for either of the others.
These statistics document a major social change in the United States.
But changes of this magnitude do not occur in a vacuum; the change in maternal employment rates have been accompanied by many other changes in family life. Family size is smaller, modern technology has considerably diminished the amount of necessary housework and food preparation, women are more educated, marriages are less stable, life expectancy has increased and youthfulness has been extended, expectations for personal fulfillment have expanded, and traditional gender-role attitudes have been modified and are less widely held.
In considering the research on the effects of maternal employment, it is important to keep these interrelated social changes in mind. Some of the effects suggested by earlier studies are not found in more recent research because of changes in family patterns or in the larger society.
Effects are different in the middle class than in the lower class and different for boys than for girls. To understand how maternal employment affects the child, you have to understand how it affects the family because it is through the family that effects take place.
The sample is a socio-economically The negative effects of child labor one of third and fourth grade children and their families residing in a large industrial city in the Midwest.
It includes one-parent families as well as two-parent, African-American and European American. We also dropped from analysis children who were not living with their mothers. The final sample had families. Differences Between Children of Employed and Nonemployed Mothers Many of the studies that have compared the children of employed and nonemployed mothers on child outcome measures such as indices of cognitive and socioemotional development have failed to find significant differences.
The research that has shown reasonably consistent differences has examined the relationships within subgroups based on social class and gender. Patterns that have been revealed over the years include the following: Daughters of employed mothers have been found to have higher academic achievement, greater career success, more nontraditional career choices, and greater occupational commitment.
Studies of children in poverty, in both two-parent and single-mother families, found higher cognitive scores for children with employed mothers as well as higher scores on socioemotional indices. A few earlier studies found that sons of employed mothers in the middle class showed lower school performance and lower I.
About ten years ago, there were three separate studies that looked at that relationship; two of them found no difference, but the third also found lower scores for sons of employed mothers in the middle-class. We found no indication of this in the Michigan study.
In fact, we found the opposite. In our study, the children of employed mothers obtained higher scores on the three achievement tests, for language, reading, and math, across gender, socioeconomic status, and marital status, middle-class boys included.
It was our most robust findings for the child outcome differences. Previous research has also found some social adjustment differences between children with employed and nonemployed mothers, but with less consistency.
Daughters of employed mothers have been found to be more independent, particularly in interaction with their peers in a school setting, and to score higher on socioemotional adjustment measures.
Results for sons have been quite mixed and vary with social class and with how old the children were when they were tested. This was interpreted as reflecting the more traditional gender-role attitudes in the blue collar class. We did not find this at all and it may reflect the change over the years in gender-role attitudes in the working-class -- the less stereotype views becoming more pervasive across class.
The other social adjustment findings from the recent Michigan study were generally consistent with previous results but extended them. Daughters with employed mothers, across the different groups, showed more positive assertiveness as rated by the teacher that is, they participated in class discussions, they asked questions when instructions were unclear, they were comfortable in leadership positionsand they showed less acting-out behavior.
They were less shy, more independent and had a higher sense of efficacy. Working-class boys also showed more positive social adjustment when their mothers were employed, and this was true for both one-parent and two-parent families. In fact, there was some evidence that those with employed mothers showed more acting-out behavior than the sons of full-time homemakers.
There is one more result from previous research which was also found in our study: Sons and daughters of employed mothers have less traditional gender-role attitudes.
However, in our research, we used two different measures of gender-role attitudes: For each, they were asked "Who can--?
We then constructed two scales, one tapping whether they thought only men could do the male-typed things and the other measuring whether they thought only women could do the female-typed things.
This result held for girls in two-parent homes and girls in one-parent homes. On the other hand, in two-parent families, both sons and daughters of employed mothers felt that men could do the female activities, while those with full-time homemakers did not, but this was true only in two-parent families.
Even when the researcher controls on gender-role attitudes, this effect is found, and the increased involvement of fathers in household tasks and child care is reported by mothers as a change that occurred when they re-entered the labor force.There are few positive sides of child labor which could be discussed alongside its negative impacts.
It’s a common picture that international media and forums projecting negative sides of child labor. Many doctors won't tell you the epidural side effects, but you have the right to know before making your decision.
Find out the truth about epidurals here. The children described how they were terrified when climbing down shafts or diving into pits.
They complained about the health effects of the work, such as back pain, skin infections, and muscle. Jan 19, · Chocolate’s billion-dollar industry starts with workers like Abdul on an Ivory Coast farm. Abdul is 10 years old, a three-year veteran of the job.
He has never tasted chocolate. CNN's David McKenzie travels into the heart of the Ivory Coast -- the world’s largest cocoa producer -- to investigate child slavery in the fields.
According to the US Department of Labor, a sweatshop can be defined as a factory that produces one of the following items: shoes, clothing, rugs, toys, chocolate, bananas or coffee, and that is.
The Consequences of Child Labor. in exploring the effects of child labor. The authors use the Kagera Health and Development Survey, spanning 13 years, to study the relationship negative effect of child labor on edu-cational outcomes appears to be pre-dominantly relevant to boys.