The major changes that came with urbanization of the 18th century

United Nation's population projections by location. Note the vertical axis is logarithmic and represents millions of people. The original Demographic Transition model has just four stages, but additional stages have been proposed.

The major changes that came with urbanization of the 18th century

According to the census, 95 percent of the population lived in the countryside. The 5 percent of Americans living in urban areas places with more than 2, persons lived mostly in small villages.

Only Philadelphia, New York, and Boston had more than 15, inhabitants. The South was almost completely rural. After the urban areas of the country grew more rapidly than the rural areas. By industrialization had produced substantial growth in cities, and 35 percent of Americans lived in urban areas, mostly in the northern half of the United States.

The South remained rural, except for New Orleans and a few smaller cities. The number of Americans living in cities did not surpass the number in rural areas until By the s three out of four Americans lived in an urban setting, and since World War II the southern half of the country has become increasingly urbanized, particularly in Texas, Arizona, and the states along the eastern seaboard.

Growth of Cities Until the middle of the 19th century, the center of the city was the most fashionable place to live. Merchants, lawyers, and manufacturers built substantial townhouses on the main thoroughfares within walking distance of the docks, warehouses, offices, courts, and shops where they worked.

Poorer people lived in back alleys and courtyards of the central city. Markets, shops, taverns, and concert halls provided services and entertainment.

The major changes that came with urbanization of the 18th century

The middle classes lived a little farther from the center, and other poor people lived in the suburbs, farther from the economic and governmental centers and away from urban amenities such as town watches, water pumps, and garbage collection. Cities were densely populated, as people had to live within walking distance of work and shops.

Streets were narrow, just wide enough to accommodate pedestrians and wagons. The Industrial Revolution of the 19th and 20th centuries transformed urban life and gave people higher expectations for improving their standard of living.

The increased number of jobs, along with technological innovations in transportation and housing construction, encouraged migration to cities. Development of railroads, streetcars, and trolleys in the 19th century enabled city boundaries to expand.

People no longer had to live within walking distance of their jobs. With more choices about where to live, people tended to seek out neighbors of similar social status, if they could afford to do so.

The wealthy no longer had to live in the center of the city, so they formed exclusive enclaves far from warehouses, factories, and docks. Office buildings, retail shops, and light manufacturing characterized the central business districts.

Heavier industry clustered along the rivers and rail lines that brought in raw materials and shipped out finished products.

Railroads also allowed goods to be brought into downtown commercial districts. By the second half of the 19th century, specialized spaces—retail districts, office blocks, manufacturing districts, and residential areas—characterized urban life.

The wealthy created separate neighborhoods for themselves by building mansions on large plots of land at the edges of the cities or in the countryside.

Housing developments of similar-looking single-family or multiple-family dwellings, built by speculators, sprouted on the edges of cities. These often catered to a new middle class of white-collar employees in business and industry.

The houses faced broader streets and increasingly had plots of grass in front and sometimes in the rear. New apartments were spacious and often had balconies, porches, or other amenities.

By more than a third of urban dwellers owned their own homes, one of the highest rates in the world at the time. As the middle classes left the bustle and smoke of cities, poorer people—newcomers from the countryside and immigrants—moved into the old housing stock.

Landlords took advantage of the demand for housing by subdividing city houses into apartments and by building tenements, low-rent apartment buildings that were often poorly maintained and unsanitary.

Immigrants gravitated to the cheap housing and to the promise of work in or near the center of cities or around factories. Now the rich lived in the suburbs and the poor near the center of cities. In the 50 years from tothe number of Americans in cities grew from 10 million to 54 million.

Into the 20th century, cities grew in population and expanded geographically by absorbing nearby communities. In New York City acquired Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx as boroughs, political divisions that are like counties. Chicago grew from aboutinhabitants in to more than a million in Three-quarters of the city's residents were born outside the United States, and while some found work and a comfortable existence, many suffered severe poverty.If these changes are essentially the result of the growth of the size of the city, the 19th century is also the period in urban history which saw the birth of.

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. SEE ALSO, Europe Transformed Author: Lewis Hackett Date: Industrialization: The First Phase.

Urbanization - Wikipedia

Most products people in the industrialized nations use today are turned out swiftly by the process of mass production, by people (and sometimes, robots) working on assembly lines using power-driven machines. By Subject: 18th/19th Century History. View: By Date | Alphabetical.

October This book fills the gap by discussing some of the major writers in the nineteenth century, beginning with late-Romantic writers, such as Bettina von Arnim and Johanna Schopenhauer, and goes on to discuss writers who were active in the Revolution such as.

The changes leading to this stage in Europe were initiated in the Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century and were initially quite slow.

Jonathan Rees

In the 20th century, the falls in death rates in developing countries tended to be substantially faster. Urbanization Of 18th Century Change In Urban Society At the end of the 18th century a revolution in energy and industry began in England and spread rapidly all around Europe later in the 19th century, bringing about dramatic and radical change.

Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called timberdesignmag.com addition to describing a particular form of urbanization, the term also relates to the social and environmental consequences associated with this development.

Urbanization - Wikipedia