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It proved to be a useless war. It started on the base of dubious arguments, 1 and as Lyndon Johnson admits, without "any plan for victory militarily or diplomatically. The lack of clear goal behind big decisions, always leads to failure. Using 10 million tons of bombs, sacrificing nearly 58 American lives 3 and causing more than a million Vietnamese deaths, 4 simply because Johnson administration did not want to "lose face," 5 is something bordering with insanity.
It is easy former politicians and past decisions to be criticized. Every generation judges its predecessors from the hillock of its position, yet every generation repeats one or another old mistake.
The war in Vietnam started without a clear answer of "Why it was necessary? There are two questions that I will try to answer: What caused the Vietnam War, and why did it turn out a failure for the United States? Clearly, the Vietnam War was a result of the Cold War. At the time when the war started what America was doing was really important, and the stakes of how the United States were presenting in the eyes of the world seemed much higher than today.
The fundamental reason for American involvement in Indochina was the demonstration of commitment. The fear of American government from a "domino effect," where the emerging post-colonial nations bend towards the Soviet Union, was incorporated in the American politics of "containment.
In this war, such as in Korea ten years before, Kremlin acted indirectly, supplying the communist guerrilla and North Vietnamese Army with money and arms, while Washington acted openly starting a real intervention. The actual value of Vietnam as a territory, economy or political presence on the world stage was insignificant.
This has been proved after the war and this was not properly estimated by the American government at the time. When Vietnam finally became a communist state, the world system did not move even a bit.
Indeed the event that shaken the world was the war itself and this "cold blood" conflict, far from the American shores, resonated unexpectedly hard in the United States and all over the western camp. Or if we return to the question that tormented Lyndon Johnson - how America will be perceived - the basic goal of Vietnam War was not achieved.
The politics of "containment," in the form of limited, dispassionate war, proved not to apply to Indochina. The mistaken understanding of "limited war theory" 7 by American leaders explains the character of Vietnam conflict and the reasons for its outbreak.
The nature of Cold War required types of behavior appropriate for a world under the shadow of nuclear threat. In the bipolar world of the twentieth century the balance of power was important.
The existence of weapons of mass destruction WMD made the opposing states careful in their actions. On the one hand WMD kept the existing status quo in a grip, on the other hand the U.
Gaddis explains in his "Long Peace" - the Russians wanted to change the status quo, while the Americans were striving to save it. Both powers regarded limited war option as a conflict, conducted on the world periphery 8 where the powers can check their determination without entering in full-blown conventional war and where the high morale of their armies can be kept awake.
Indeed the limited wars prove to be more risky and bloody than expected. And the problem was their character: A Different Kind of War," gives a good, pragmatic explanation of the failure of American intervention.Apago PDF Enhancer JOHN HOLLITZ College of Southern Nevada 4: Elizabeth Cady Stanton Addresses the Seneca Falls Convention () 5: Elizabeth Cady Stanton Answers the Critics of Woman’s Rights () 11 Manifest Destiny and Conquest: Thomas Larkin and Juan Bautista Alvarado SOURCE each chapter examines two individuals.
Contending Voices, Volume I: To / Edition 3 available in Paperback. Add to Wishlist. ISBN ISBN John Hollitz received his Ph.D from the University of Wisconsin in and has been professor of history at the Community College of Southern Nevada since Source 5 Elizabeth Cady Stanton Answers the Critics of Price: $ - This reading material consists of the first chapter of Stephen Ambrose's text “To America, Personal Reflections of an Historian”, entitled “The Founding Fathers”.
modern day political system. When today's modern day student is asked just what sort of system that was, it seems the answer is always "democracy." In reality, the House.
Mississippi Summer Project Documents Freedom Summer national public opinion poll, Harris Survey Inc. July 6 Report From Indianola Miss., John Harris, COFO. August 7 Conduct for Vigil, Friends of SNCC, Los Angeles, CA. (Federal Building vigil after discovery of Chaney, Schwerner, Goodman bodies in MS.).
Author by: John Hollitz Languange: en Publisher by: Cengage Learning Format Available: PDF, ePub, Mobi Description: Each chapter in CONTENDING VOICES examines the lives of two individuals, some of them familiar historical figures and some of them lesser known, who took opposing positions on important issues in American history.
The. A good source that you can get more information on Eleanor is "thinking through the past" A Critical Thinking Approach to U.S. History by John Hollitz, Chapter 7.