Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing essay

Research Findings Francine Shapiro, PhD, an American psychologist, developed Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing EMDR Therapy as a breakthrough therapy with special capacity to overcome the often devastating effects of psychological trauma in the late s.

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing essay

The eye movements have been the subject of great scrutiny and were called into question a decade ago by a meta-analysis 28 of studies evaluating treatment effects with and without this component. However, guidelines published by the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies 11 indicated that no conclusions were possible because the studies evaluated in the meta-analyses were fatally flawed owing to the use of inappropriate populations, insufficient treatment doses, and lack of power.

In contrast, since that time, 20 RCTs have indicated positive effects of the eye movement component. Three dominant hypotheses regarding proposed mechanisms of action of EMDR therapy that have been supported by research 35 — 37 include that the eye movements a tax working memory, b elicit an orienting response, and c link into the same processes that occur during rapid eye movement sleep.

Developed in the early s, 1 this concept posits that, except for symptoms caused by organic deficits, toxicity, or injury, the primary foundations of mental health disorders are unprocessed memories of earlier life experiences.


It appears that the high level of arousal engendered by distressing life events causes them to be stored in memory with the original emotions, physical sensations, and beliefs. The flashbacks, nightmares, and intrusive thoughts of PTSD are prime examples of symptoms resulting from the triggering of these memories.

However, as indicated in the AIP model, a wide range of adverse life experiences can also be stored in a dysfunctional manner, providing the basis for diverse symptomology that include negative affective, cognitive, and somatic responses. Sufficient processing of those accessed memories within the standard three-pronged EMDR therapy protocol brings about adaptive resolution and functioning.

It is conjectured that processing the targeted experiences transfers them from implicit and episodic memory to explicit and semantic memory systems. What is useful is learned and stored with appropriate affective, somatic, and cognitive concomitants.

Consequently, the disturbing life experience becomes a source of strength and resilience.

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing essay

One of the studies using a mixed sample 2425 reported comparable decreases in symptoms whether or not the participant met all criteria for PTSD. The ability of EMDR therapy to rapidly treat unprocessed memories of distressing life experiences has multiple applications in medical practice, as such memories have been identified as the basis for a wide variety of clinical symptoms.

Research has revealed widespread mental health treatment implications. It is particularly important in the treatment of children to identify interpersonal experiences, including household dysfunction, bullying, and humiliation, that may be contributing to problems such as anxiety, lack of focus, angry outbursts, inattention, and impulsivity issues that might otherwise be incorrectly diagnosed as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Reports of insomnia, nightmares, and night terrors should be similarly evaluated, as memory processing alone can improve the quality of sleep.

In this regard, the use of EMDR therapy to treat the patient and to identify the adverse life experiences that contribute to current symptoms, and processing the memories to an adaptive resolution, can significantly contribute to efficient clinical practice. In this way, when the past becomes present and patients react in a dysfunctional manner, it is because their perceptions of current situations are colored by their unprocessed memories.

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing essay

The AIP conceptualization provides the basis for a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical picture, the targets selected for treatment, and the procedures used during reprocessing. The transcript of a patient who requested treatment for PTSD following an earthquake 48 reveals the experiences of household dysfunction that set the foundation for her current symptoms see Sidebar: Note the spontaneous emergence of insight that ties together both past and present trauma, as well as the rapid change in affect and cognitive response.

Also of note is the recognition of childhood feelings of powerlessness that provide the foundation for psychosomatic problems. An RCT with patients suffering from PTSD following a life-threatening cardiovascular event compared eight sessions of EMDR therapy to imaginal exposure therapy which involves concentrating on the trauma memory and repeatedly describing it in detail.

Of note, significant improvement in trait anxiety was also reported and maintained. No such improvement was reported for imaginal exposure therapy. Rehabilitation services can benefit from EMDR therapy to support both patient and family members. The traumatic impact of dealing with life-threatening, incapacitating disease can be mitigated by incorporating relatively few memory-processing sessions to address distressing medical experiences, current situations, and fears of the future.Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Essay Sample.

Abstract. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is a relatively new method that has been developed in the treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSDs).

EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) is a psychotherapy that enables people to heal from the symptoms and emotional distress that are the result of disturbing life experiences. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is a treatment used in psychotherapy to alleviate distress associated with trauma (Shapiro, ).

During EMDR clients reprocess information while focusing on external stimuli such as, lateral eye movements, hand tapping, and audio stimulation. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Essay Sample.

Abstract. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is a relatively new method that has been developed in the treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSDs).

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a fairly new, nontraditional type of timberdesignmag.com's growing in popularity, particularly for treating post-traumatic stress disorder. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, or EMDR, is a powerful new psychotherapy technique which has been very successful in helping people who suffer from trauma, anxiety, panic, disturbing memories, post traumatic stress and many other emotional problems.

EMDR-Breakthrough Therapy for Overcoming Anxiety,Stress,Trauma & Self-Sabotage