Programme Director, Comrades, Brothers and Sisters, The effects of colonialism past and present are visible all over Africa. History is a clock that tells a people their historical time of the day. History is the compass that wise people use to locate themselves on the map of the world.
Three Worlds, Three Views: Yet all residents of the region shared two important traits. First, they lived and worked in a natural environment unlike any other in the American colonies. Second, like humans everywhere, their presence on the landscape had profound implications for the natural world.
Exploring the ecological transformation of the colonial South offers an opportunity to examine the ways in which three distinct cultures—Native American, European, and African—influenced and shaped the environment in a fascinating part of North America.
The Native American World Like natives elsewhere in North America, those in the South practiced shifting seasonal subsistence, altering their diets and food gathering techniques to conform to the changing seasons.
In spring, a season which brought massive runs of shad, alewives, herring, and mullet from the ocean into the rivers, Indians in Florida and elsewhere along the Atlantic coastal plain relied on fish taken with nets, spears, or hooks and lines. In autumn and winter—especially in the piedmont and uplands—the natives turned more to deer, bear, and other game animals for sustenance.
Because they required game animals in quantity, Indians often set light ground fires to create brushy edge habitats and open areas in southern forests that attracted deer and other animals to well-defined hunting grounds.
The natives also used fire to drive deer and other game into areas where the animals might be easily dispatched.
To clear farmland, the natives used fire and stone axes to remove smaller brush and timber. They then stripped the bark a process known as girdling from larger trees so that they sprouted no leaves and eventually died. Native farmers primarily women then planted corn, beans, and squash together in hills beneath the dead and dying trees.
Farming seems to have allowed native populations to increase in the millennium before European contact. Some of the larger native cultures probably numbered in the tens of thousands. Old fields then had to lie fallow until they recovered some fertility and could be planted again.
In addition, the natives had to store seeds, manage harvests, and distribute surplus crops, all of which required complex social and political organization. And, as several southeastern cultures seem to have discovered, a diet too rich in corn led to nutritional deficiencies and poor health.
Thus, agriculture had to be blended proper proportion with hunting, fishing, and gathering wild foods in order to ensure survival.
Lean times were inevitable. However, they did not regard land as property that could be transferred in perpetuity to another individual or group. Native culture also did not encourage the unrestricted accumulation of land or other material goods.
For most southern Indians, an ideal chieftain or leader was one who regularly distributed great stores of food, animal skins, or other valuable items within the community. Generosity—not individual wealth—conferred status, fostered allegiances, and helped maintain the communal good.
Long before the arrival of Europeans, native people traded items between themselves and with more distant cultures.
Trade, however, was more than simply an economic enterprise.The reason for this is that European (and American) slave traders did not simply go out into the African countryside and kidnap their own slaves.
Instead, they bought slaves from the coastal kingdoms. European HandballEuropean Colonization and African American DevelopmentEuropean Cars Are Better Than JapaneseEuropeans in JamaicaEuropean HistoryEuthanasiaEuropean UnionEuthanasia Persuasive SpeechEuthanasia LifeEvaluate methods for managing children’s behaviour and how these may affect teaching and learning.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Western Europe. Impact of colonial land ownership on long-term development European-Native American Warfare. A basic element of the mythology Europeans created about both the African and Native American cultures was that these people, before European contact .
The history of European colonisation has been not only of land dispossession but of destroying African knowledge. For instance, the “Atlantic” Ocean was called the Ethiopian Sea as late as and the so-called “Indian” Ocean the Azanian Sea.
Aug 21, · Watch video · The story of North American exploration spans an entire millennium andinvolves a wide array of European powers and uniquely American characters. England’s colonization of the Atlantic coast.