It is often considered the sacred root of several American pop music genres. Initially, gospel was met with resistance from many church leaders; however, other composers began to contribute to the style, and audiences continued to support this sonic mix of black sacred folk music traditions with urban styles of popular music. Like African American spirituals of the 19th century, the lyrical content of gospel music is centrally important, and it addresses the worldviews, theologies, culture, and experiences of African Americans. Song lyrical content can be devotional, testimonial, inspirational, social justice oriented, or evangelistic.
See Article History Gospel music, a genre of American Protestant music, rooted in the religious revivals of the 19th century, which developed in different directions within the white European American and black African American communities of the United States.
Over the decades, both the white and black traditions have been disseminated through song publishing, concerts, recordings, and radio and television broadcasts of religious services.
In the later 20th century, gospel music developed into a popular commercial genre, with artists touring worldwide. White gospel music White gospel music emerged from the intersection in the19th and early 20th centuries of various European American musical traditions, including Protestant Christian hymnodyrevival-meeting spiritualsand assorted popular styles.
This musical combination yielded a form that—despite many developments—has maintained some distinct qualities. The music is generally strophic in verses with a refrain, and its texts typically depict personal religious experiences and stress the importance of salvation.
Most of the repertoire is set in a major key and is arranged in four-part harmony—similar in style to barbershop singing —with the melody in the top voice.
Early gospel hymns had a relatively straightforward rhythmic and harmonic structure using three basic chords: I, IV, and Vbut as the tradition absorbed more influences from popular musicboth its rhythmic and its harmonic vocabulary expanded. In the first decades of the 19th century, gospel songs were transmitted through Sunday-school hymnbooks.
Among the most widely used song collections during this period were those compiled by Lowell MasonWilliam B. Fanny Crosby was the leading writer of gospel hymn texts. After the American Civil War —65the Sunday-school repertoire was appropriated and expanded to serve the Protestant revival movement, especially in urban areas.
Singer and composer Phillip D. Bliss was among the most important figures in this endeavour, as were evangelist Dwight L. Moody and his musical collaborator Ira D. Together, Moody and Sankey employed the Sunday-school hymns and new gospel compositions in their church services as major instruments of edification and conversion, thus playing a critical role in the establishment of gospel music as a legitimate means of ministry.
Largely through the work of evangelists such as Billy Sundayworking with musicians such as Charles McCallom Alexander and Homer Rodeheaver, the music acquired a more upbeat character. The organ was replaced by the piano, which in turn was joined by other instruments.
The vocal component of the music also took on a more demonstrative, lively quality, with lyrics that conveyed a more positive message. Billy Sunday in New York, Library of Congress, Washington, D. In the second half of the 20th century, gospel hymnody again played a major role in a Protestant religious revival, becoming even more heavily influenced by popular styles and employing greater harmonic variety.
In urban areas the popularized gospel music emerged as the foundation of many Protestant services—especially in BaptistMethodistPresbyterianand various fundamentalist churches. The most productive composer of this new gospel repertoire was John Willard Peterson, while Billy Graham was the most prominent—and internationally recognized—evangelist of the period.
In the rural Southgospel gained a new identity as a type of popular country musicsometimes called country gospel, that was both practically and stylistically a fully secular tradition not intended for use in churchwith such exponents as the Oak Ridge Boys and the Statler Brothers.
Such secularized gospel music continued to enjoy a wide audience in the 21st century, through the work of many other artists, among the most notable of whom are the Lewis Family, Patti Sandy, Pat Booneand Dolly Parton.
Black gospel music The tradition that came to be recognized as black American gospel music emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries alongside ragtimebluesand jazz. The progenitors of the tradition, however, lie in both black and white musics of the 19th century, including, most notably, black spiritualsslave songs, and white hymnody.
It contained texts written mostly by 18th-century British clergymen, such as Isaac Watts and Charles Wesleybut also included a number of poems by black American Richard Allen —the founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church —and his parishioners. The volume contained no music, however, leaving the congregation to sing the texts to well-known hymn tunes.
After the Civil Warblack hymnals began to include music, but most of the arrangements employed the rhythmically and melodically straightforward, unembellished style of white hymnody. In the last decade of the 19th century, black hymnody experienced a stylistic shift.
Colourful and allusive texts, reminiscent in many respects of the older black spirituals, were set to melodies composed by white hymnodists. The arrangements, however, were adjusted to reflect black American musical sensibilities.
Most significantly, the hymns were syncopated ; that is, they were recast rhythmically by accentuating normally weak beats. Among the first hymnals to use this modified musical style was The Harp of Zion, published in and readily adopted by many black congregations. The immediate impetus for the development of this new, energetic, and distinctly black gospel music seems to have been the rise of Pentecostal churches at the end of the 19th century.
Pentecostal shouting is related to speaking in tongues and to circle dances of African origin. The voice of the black gospel preacher was affected by black secular performers and vice versa.
Improvised recitative passages, melismatic singing singing of more than one pitch per syllableand an extraordinarily expressive delivery also characterize black gospel music.
Among the most prominent black gospel music composers and practitioners have been the Rev. Franklin —84 of Detroit father of soul music singer Aretha Franklinwho issued more than 70 albums of his sermons and choir after World War II.
Important women in the black gospel tradition have included Roberta Martin —69a gospel pianist based in Chicago with a choir and a school of gospel singing; Mahalia Jackson —72who toured internationally and was often broadcast on television and radio; and Sister Rosetta Tharpe —73whose guitar and vocal performances introduced gospel into nightclubs and concert theatres.Introduction.
Gospel music (also known as “black gospel music” or “African American gospel music”) is a sacred music genre that emerged in the s out of a confluence of sacred hymns, spirituals, shouts, jubilee quartet songs, and black devotional songs with noticeable blues and jazz rhythmic and harmonic influences.
God’s spirit enveloped the California African American Museum as Los Angeles came out for a gospel music tribute to the legendary Aretha Franklin on Aug. The “Queen of Soul” passed away.
An Introduction to the Gospel Music in African American Community PAGES WORDS 6, View Full Essay. More essays like this: african american community, the gospel piano style, gospel music.
Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. african american community, the gospel piano style, gospel music. Gospel music, a genre of American Protestant music, rooted in the religious revivals of the 19th century, which developed in different directions within the white (European American) and black (African American) communities of the United States.
Traditional black gospel is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding African American Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular music.
An Introduction to Gospel Song Various Artists From the Fisk Jubilee Singers' restrained vocal arrangements of spirituals to the jazz-influenced music of the "Happy I Am" Choir, gospel music may have changed its trappings, but the heart of the music remains.