Ancient Egypt Video transcript smooth piano music - [Steve] We're in the Louvre, in Paris, looking at one of their most famous objects. And this is such an ancient object, this is nearly 4, years old. This one is carved in relief at the top, and then below that, and on all sides, we have inscribed cuneiform.
The code was carved upon a black stone monument, eight feet high, and clearly intended to be reared in public view. This noted stone was found in the yearnot in Babylon, but in a city of the Persian mountains, to which some later conqueror must have carried it in triumph.
It begins and ends with addresses to the gods. Even a law code was in those days regarded as a subject for prayer, though the prayers here are chiefly cursings of whoever shall neglect or destroy the law.
The code then regulates in clear and definite strokes the organization of society. The judge who blunders in a law case is to be expelled from his judgeship forever, and heavily fined.
The witness who testifies falsely is to be slain. Indeed, all the heavier crimes are made punishable with death. Even if a man builds a house badly, and it falls and kills the owner, the builder is to be slain. We can see where the Hebrews learned their law of "an eye for an eye. An accused person was allowed to cast himself into "the river," the Euphrates.
Apparently the art of swimming was unknown; for if the current bore him to the shore alive he was declared innocent, if he drowned he was guilty. So we learn that faith in the justice of the ruling gods was already firmly, though somewhat childishly, established in the minds of men.
Yet even with this earliest set of laws, as with most things Babylonian, we find ourselves dealing with the end of things rather than the beginnings. He is but reorganizing a legal system long established. Claude Hermann Walter Johns, M.
Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, The material for the study of Babylonian law is singularly extensive without being exhaustive. The so-called "contracts," including a great variety of deeds, conveyances, bonds, receipts, accounts and, most important of all, the actual legal decisions given by the judges in the law courts, exist in thousands.
Historical inscriptions, royal charters and rescripts, despatches, private letters and the general literature afford welcome supplementary information. Even grammatical and lexicographical works, intended solely to facilitate the study of ancient literature, contain many extracts or short sentences bearing on law and custom.
The so-called "Sumerian Family Laws" are thus preserved. The discovery of the now celebrated Code of Hammurabi hereinafter simply termed the Code has, however, made a more systematic study possible than could have resulted from the classification and interpretation of the other material.
Some fragments of a later code exist and have been published; but there still remain many points upon which we have no evidence. This material dates from the earliest times down to the commencement of our era.
The evidence upon a particular point may be very full at one period and almost entirely lacking at another. The Code forms the backbone of the skeleton sketch which is here reconstructed. The greater part of It remained in force, even through the Persian, Greek and Parthian conquests, which affected private life in Babylonia very little, and it survived to influence Syro-Roman and later Mahommedan law in Mesopotamia.
When the Semitic tribes settled in the cities of Babylonia, their tribal custom passed over into city law. The early history of the country is the story of a struggle for supremacy between the cities.
A metropolis demanded tribute and military support from its subject cities but left their local cults and customs unaffected. The city rights and usages were respected by kings and conquerors alike.
As late as the accession of Assur-bani-pal and Samas-sum-yukin we find the Babylonians appealing to their city laws that groups of aliens to the number of twenty at a time were free to enter the city, that foreign women once married to Babylonian husbands could not be enslaved and that not even a dog that entered the city could be put to death untried.
The population of Babylonia was of many races from early times and intercommunication between the cities was incessant.Hammurabi's Code may not seem very different from more recent laws and precedents that guide the processes of a trial. But, there are a few major differences between ancient Babylonians and today's laws.
Hammurabi's Code required accusers to bring the accused into court by themselves. The Code of Hammurabi is the most frequently cited cuneiform document in specialized literature.
Its first scholarly publication in led to the development of a special branch of comparative jurisprudence, the study of cuneiform law.
HAMMURABI’S CODE OF LAWS (adapted from the L.W. King translation). 1. If any one accuses another of murder but cannot prove it, then the accuser shall be put to death. 2. If anyone accuses someone else of sorcery, the accused shall leap into the river, and if s/he drowns the accuser shall take possession of the accused's house and belongings. "Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, on whom Shamash has conferred the law, am I." "An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth." This phrase, along with the idea of written laws, goes back to ancient Mesopotamian culture that prospered long before the Bible was written or the civilizations of the. The Code of Hammurabi was one of the earliest and most complete written legal codes, proclaimed by the Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from to B.C. Hammurabi expanded the city-state of Babylon along the Euphrates River to unite all of southern Mesopotamia.
Hammurabis code was one of the first written code of law in recorded history. It spelled it the rules as well as the ___ for the citizens of Babylonia.
The Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi. Practice: Law Code of Hammurabi. This is the currently selected item. Kassite Art: Unfinished Kudurru. Neo-Babylonian. Ishtar gate and Processional Way.
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Next, it reviews the history of early law codes, like those of Ur-Nammu and Hammurabi. Finally, we look at the. The Code of Hammurabi was one of the earliest and most complete written legal codes, proclaimed by the Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from to B.C.
Hammurabi expanded the city-state of Babylon along the Euphrates River to unite all of southern Mesopotamia.